Japan suffered immensely from the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. Sixteen thousand people died, 120,000 buildings were destroyed, and 4 million homes lost power. It also derailed the strategy of Japan's electricity utilities; the partial meltdown at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility prompted utilities to shut down 30 of Japan's 39 nuclear reactors, eliminating 30% of Japan's generation capacity and removing a pillar of Japan's decarbonization policy. Despite a 30% carbon emissions reduction target by 2030, electricity carbon intensity doubled as Japan turned to coal and gas to provide power. As Japan seeks to install renewables, dispatchability and lack of transmission interconnection remain challenges.
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