Kaneka's involvement with polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) extends back to the early 2000s. In 2002, the company applied for a patent on the preparation of biodegradable fibers from PHB, PHBH, and PHBV. Then, in 2004, Kaneka and P&G Chemicals formed a joint development partnership leading to the commercialization of Nodax PHBH. While Kaneka and P&G planned to pursue the scale-up of Nodax in 2006 for flexible applications, the two never fulfilled these plans. Instead, P&G sold some of its IP to Meridian (now Danimer Scientific). A few years later, Kaneka's R&D activity into PHAs and downstream applications took a back seat (see Kaneka's PHA patent activity below), allowing players like Bio-On and Danimer to take center stage.