When consumers consider buying an electric vehicle, sufficient access to charging infrastructure is usually cited as one of the primary concerns. Tesla, an early leader in vehicle electrification, recognized this and invested in its supercharger network of just over 16,000 chargers as of April 2020 – all only accessible to Tesla vehicles through its proprietary plug. Incumbent automakers have not been as ready to invest in charging infrastructure, with most relying on third-party networks. In Europe, the Ionity network – formed by a joint venture among BMW, Ford, Mercedes, and Volkswagen – was the first serious effort by an incumbent automaker to deploy infrastructure. Despite a later start, it focused on ultrafast charging by offering up to 350 kW per stall.