Agriculture contributes up 20% of global greenhouse gas emissions, posing a challenge to net-zero emissions goals. One way to tackle this is to harness the underwater ecosystem for farming needs. The ocean covers more than 70% of Earth and is a self-sustaining ecosystem; yet, it accounts for only 2% of the world’s caloric food supply. Experts agree that the ocean can be harnessed further to meet growing agricultural demands. Ocean Reef Group launched a project called Nemo Garden to create biospheres that act as underwater greenhouses for cultivating fresh vegetables and herbs 20 feet below the water's surface. While promising, the project faced two challenges: crops being destroyed by ocean storms and scaling the prototypes for widespread deployment.
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