Microbiome research has exploded over the past decade, as indicated by a dramatic rise in publications on the topic. The microbiome plays a complex, but crucial, role in the health of all living things – and that role is still poorly understood. Start-ups are flocking to the space on the belief that it has the potential to drastically change the landscape of multiple industries. This report identifies hotspots of activity within the microbiome space, and calls out five distinct industries poised for disruption: food, agriculture, medicine, personal care, and animal health. We assess activity using Lux’s proprietary analysis tools to identify global patents and identify winning developers.