As alternative fuel technologies march to scale, alliances between leading corporations, financiers, engineers, and feedstock companies are forming sector-specific empires in areas like biojet and cellulosic processing. In the maturing industry, 753 organizations formed 800 unique partnerships in the last decade, tying a whopping 79% of them together in one formidable cluster. Those on the inside are sharpening their swords, with 57% of partnerships since 2010 focused on R&D. But each empire has its own unique rules and risks: In cellulosic ethanol, universities are rare, while dominant downstream companies like Valero, Mitsui, and BP glue innovations together. This report traces the history of the alternative fuel social network across national, industry, and technology lines from 2005 to today, translating the complexity of several hundred connections into coherent and actionable recommendations.